ASSESSMENT OF THE GROUNDWATER SOURCES QUALITY IN THE KOŠICE REGION, SLOVAKIA
Tomáš Bakalár, Henrieta Pavolová, Ľubica Kozáková, Branislav Ľoch, Kamil Kyšeľa
Water from underground sources is most suitable for drinking purposes. In order to use groundwater as a drinking source, it must meet the criteria laid down by legislative standards and regularly monitored by the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. The work is aimed at assessing the quality of drinking water from sources of groundwater in the Košice region. We studied and subsequently evaluated the quality of 5 water samples. The studied samples came from the surroundings of Gelnica, Spišská Nová Ves and Košice. In the work the particular examinations of selected indicators of drinking water are presented. The content of nitrates, phosphates, sulphates and ammonium compounds was determined using a Palintest photometer and the temperature, pH and conductivity by Hanna Combo measuring instrument. No exceedance of the limit values of individual indicators was found in selected samples. The samples examined meet the criteria set by the legislation for selected indicators. It would be appropriate to repeat and monitor individual indicators in the future. In the case of over-limit values, it would be ideal to create a water treatment plan to achieve water quality that is intended for drinking purposes.
ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF MINING PROJECTS
Katarína Čulková, Lucia Domaracká, Michal Cehlár
Much has been said and written in recent years about the greatly increased difficulties faced by the mining industry due to the exhausting of nature is appearing in market economies, but single market economy is far from saving all limited sources. From this view there is necessary to make evaluation of mining projects before their realization with aim to determine if the project could bring source saving and if it could have contribution to the economy of the region and whole state. Presented contribution describes possible development of mining industry through evaluation of mining projects by economic tools, as value and price of raw material, when results is model for evaluation of sustainability of mining projects from the view of financial, personal and program aspect. Those aspects are regarded from the view of conditions of mining project realization.
WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF RIVER HORNÁD, SLOVAKIA
Branislav Ľoch, Tomáš Bakalár, Barbora Róth
The article concentrates on the monitoring of surface water quality of River Hornád i.e. identification of the current state of the Hornád River Basin quality, identification and quantification of the main problems of pollution and use of the results of the analyses for further research activities. In order to evaluate the quality of surface water in the basin of River Hornád, three sampling points were selected – at the beginning of the flow in the village of Hranovnica, in the middle of the flow in the village of Malá Lodina and at the end the flow in the village of Hidasnémeti, at the point where the River leaves the territory of Slovakia. Based on the monitoring data parameters for assessing the quality of surface water were surveyed in these sampling points. Each indicator of water quality is classified separately. In general, the results of the assessment show that the values of the most of the evaluated parameters improved during the monitored period. The indicators show a positive trend of decrease and a steady state. Positive seems to be the fact that the limit values of four indicators are not exceeded.
MARKET RESEARCH OF EARTH GAS IN SLOVAKIA
Katarína Čulková, Katarína Teplická
Gas market records currently dynamic changes; competition between the individual types of energy has never been so high, the importance of natural gas using in the energy industry and the European economy is currently growing. The presented contribution deals with research of the natural gas market in Slovakia, with the main characteristic of the SPP as a major player in the market, as well as evaluation of real and potential competition in the relevant market and also evaluation of the possibility of entering mentioned market with natural gas.
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AERMOD FOR INDIAN GEOMINING CONDITIONS
Tarun Verma, B. K. Shrivastva, Sanjay K. Sharma
Dispersion models are a useful tool for air quality management in the mining industry, especially for surface mines. However, application of these models without proper evaluation may lead to wrong decisions which can further result in the closer of mine due to inappropriate mitigative measures. Indian geo-mining conditions are different from other countries. It requires a suitable model to simulate the dust concentration in and around a surface mine. Thus systematic model evaluation studies are essential required to model application in the mining industry of India. AERMOD is a model, widely used in the world for dispersion modelling from mining activities. Statistical parameters were considered for the performance evaluation of the AERMOD. An opencast mine was considered as a study area due to multiple dust sources availability. Results have suggested that the model performs well for the Indian geo-mining conditions for daily and monthly averaging time period. Results have also suggested that the model does not predict dust dispersion accurately for smaller values.
GROUNDWATER TREATMENT BY MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR HOUSEHOLD PURPOSES
Tomáš Bakalár, Izabela Pristášová, Lucia Mihalová
The aim of the presented article is to design membrane water treatment technology for Spiš area in Slovakia in such a way that the treated water from a well fulfils the quality criteria of water for household purposes. Particular objectives include an analysis of water in the studied well, determination of the concentration of selected indicators of drinking water quality and their comparison with the limit values given in the legislation of the Slovak Republic concerning the quality of water intended for human consumption. The first step was to determine the values of following indicators: pH, conductivity, temperature, TDS, dissolved chlorides, sulphates, calcium, magnesium, CODMn, phosphates, nitrates, ammonium ions and selected heavy metals. The water from the well was subsequently treated by selected membrane processes (1st stage – microfiltration, 2nd stage – reverse osmosis) and after each stage the analysis of the above mentioned parameters was
performed again. In the final part, the results are presented: in the original water sample from the well, the limit values of drinking water quality indicators were not exceeded; after adjustment by microfiltration the set values of the indicators were lower than in the original sample. The second stage of reverse osmosis treatment resulted in demineralised water, which had to undergo an additional degree of treatment in the system which produced remineralised water. Consequently, it can be concluded that the quality of the water has improved in terms of the hardness and presence of nitrates, and it has thus been confirmed that the membrane technologies performed are an effective way of treating drinking water.
During the last thirty years, the deltaic deposition systems have become one of the most economically valuable sedimentary environments. Their potential is in the ability of being hydrocarbon reservoir. Finding of a potential hydrocarbon reservoir in the delta is based on the knowledge of the processes that creates the delta, the individual products that those processes left and the geometry of the delta facies. While analyzing the deltaic depositional systems, we must keep in mind the fact that deltas are complex sedimentary environments. This article is an introduction to the subenvironments present in the delta, the sedimentary successions left by the sedimentation, morphology of deltas and different deltaic classification that has evolved during the last forty years.